Monday, May 7, 2012

REST Best Practices: Use HTTP Status Codes

When implementing RESTful service, keep in mind that HTTP already provides you with an ability to send the status code as part of the protocol. Do NOT put the error code inside the message itself!

HTTP defines five types of status codes:
* 1xx - Informational
* 2xx - Successful
* 3xx - Redirection
* 4xx - Client Errors
* 5xx - Server Errors

See Full reference of HTTP/1.1 Status Code Definitions

I'm not going to describe all HTTP Status codes here, but to give some basic tips.

1. In case of a successful request, always return the status code from the 2xx group. It's highly recommended to use not only the basic 200 code, but also additional codes. For example 201 means a new resource was created and the LOCATION header contains its path. 204 means that the response contains no content, so the client can optimize its code and not even try to read the content of the response (saves some redundant objects creation).

2. In case of an error request, clearly distinguish between the client and server errors. Client errors mean that the client has sent a bad request: it may be incorrectly formatted, unauthorized, method not allowed (e.g. Server accepts GET requests, while POST has been sent), and more.
In case of a client error, the best is to detect it as soon as possible in the server's code, to reduce amount of logic that will run, until the request is rejected. For example it's redundant to parse request body, if it misses the security header.
2.1 Send clear response to client. It can be a good practice to supply text or html content inside the message telling what was wrong in the request.
2.2 Don't log requests with a client's error above the info level. After all, it's a client's error, not server's. The only reason to log client' errors at all, is to help clients by taking look at the server logs. Make sure not to create a misleading picture of a log full with exceptions, while there is no problem at server side at all.
2.3 By receiving the 4xx code, the client must understand that it did something wrong and should correct its request.

3. In case of a server error, return 5xx error code. Usually the best choice will be to return simply 500. Do NOT put the full stacktrace into the response body. Actually put nothing in the response body. Why should a client care about the reason of server's failure. Is the database down? Is it a code problem? Whatever it is, it's not the client's business.
3.1 Sometimes, it can be nice to return 501 Not Implemented code. Usually it will happen, if you agreed on some functionality, created a prototype for it but didn't implemented it yet.
3.2 By receiving the 5xx code, the client must understand that something went wrong and that it should retry the same request. Does it make sense to retry immediately, in 5 minutes or in 5 days depends on the client. The server can return the *Retry-After* header and client should respect it.

There are more status code that can and should be used with RESTful APIs. For example 304 Not Modified allows you to save traffic and skip the response if the resource was not modified. Many status codes are implemented by the frameworks and intermediaries, for example JAX-RS frameworks will automatically return some client errors, like 405 and 415.


1. In case of successful request, always return a request from 2xx group.
2. In case of unsuccessful request, never return 2xx with embedded status code in the message. Return appropriate 4xx or 5xx status code.
3. For client errors, return 4xx. Don't log these requests above the info level. These are client's problems, not server's.
4. For server errors, return 5xx. Log the error, but don't send it to client.

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